So I heft up my cudgels to quarrel with the master, since this is true only as far as it goes.
'cause it depends on where the character is. "A woman wants to be a doctor" will not have the same plot as "A woman wants to be a doctor in a different setting."
A poor girl in the modern world might, for instance, have to wrestle with terrible teaching, siblings and schoolmates who think she's showing them up by doing well in school (and might even beat her up for trying), a mother who thinks she's trying to leave her family behind, a father who thinks she should get a job right out of high school and start pitching in, instead of wanting to draw down even more money.
A girl in a fantasy world where medicine is the zealously guarded secret of the priests of the goddess Hygieia has other problems, particularly if she's rather secular-minded herself. Inveigling herself into places where she can spy, trying to mimic the pious so she can get trained -- discovering that, after all, malicious spirits of death and decay hate, hate, hate people who practice medicine because they save lives, and that she desperately needs the protection of the goddess Hygieia against them. . . .
So -- the rule is: Character in setting is plot.
And conversely, plot is character in setting. When I was young -- the age of my example characters -- I often sat down and wrote a story as "this happened, then that happened, then the other happened" until I got to the end. Then, since I knew everything they did, I knew what my characters were, and I went back to put in all their reasons for doing what they did.